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The Pareto Principle and Restaurants

“The Pareto principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, is a theory maintaining that 80 percent of the output from a given situation or system is determined by 20 percent of the input. … More generally, the principle can be interpreted to say that a minority of inputs results in the majority of outputs.” Read more here.

I fully believe in the Pareto Principle and I believe that it can be pretty accurately applied to all aspects of life.

I have a theory that is solely based on the Pareto Principle and my own observations from my lifetime career in the restaurant industry. It is….

That 80% of the restaurants in America are just getting by and 20% are making all the profits. The 20% group of profitable restaurants chains are constantly evolving and changing. Just because you were in it last year doesn’t mean you will be in it this year.

The restaurant industry in America is large and complex. We are constantly adding new restaurants every day, new brands, new concepts, new types of foods. It is crazy to watch how many new concepts are started every year. Yet the total unit count in the US stays pretty stagnant.

This image is from Statista.com

For every brand new Jersey Mike’s location, another sub shop goes away. That is how Jersey Mikes can have added over 1000 units in the last couple of years and yet the total number or restaurants isn’t growing like crazy.

Think about the number of restaurants that you visit every month. How many of them are just killing it? Include every restaurant, not just the new hot fine dining restaurant in your town. Think about every sub shop, fast food restaurant, delivery order you get. Are everyone of these restaurants turning a huge profit. Are the owners making a great living or are they just getting by?

I worked for P.F. Chang’s in the early 2000’s. We were one of the hottest concepts at that time. We would have a 90 minute wait on a Monday night. When was the last time your location had a 90 minute wait on a Monday Night? P.F. Chang’s isn’t as popular as it was back when I worked there but they are still a really good and profitable chain.

I joined Quiznos in 2008 they had grown from less than 1000 locations in the early 2000’s to just over 5000 locations when I arrived. Now they have 350 to 400 domestic locations. When was the last time you saw a Quiznos, not just ate there?

The franchise restaurant companies will tell you that their biggest issue is that customers can’t find a location when they want one. They have to grow to be more convenient. There are 3 empty Subways, all on the verge of death within 2 miles of my house in the North, East, and West Directions.

I’m not saying that of the 80% of the restaurants that none of them are making a profit. I’m saying that they aren’t making a ton of profits. I’m saying that they are existing but not thriving.

You can see the Pareto Principle working in other ways. 80% of the industry press is gotten by 20% of the chains. I see Sweet Green Articles all the time, there are 20 other salad concepts that you never hear about.

80% of new franchise sales are going to the 20% of the hottest franchise brands.

Whether you agree with me or not; why is this important? It’s important because you have to understand this if you aren’t in the 20% then you have to be better. You have to be great operators, systematize and control your businesses. Eek out every dollar of profit that you can from every shift. You don’t have a choice. You have to fight and control and fight some more. Your road is harder than those concepts that are currently residing in the top 20%.

When I was on the management team at the P.F. Chang’s Tyson’s Corner in 2001. We grew weekly revenue by $80,000 a week over a 12 month period. We were hot, we had people lining up to work, we had low turnover, we used to put 10 2 Tops in the hallway of the mall at lunch time and fill them. We could do no wrong. We weren’t plagued by the problems of slower restaurants because we were in the 20%.

Things that I see in restaurants that are in the 80% that need to change:

  • They are dirty
  • They are understaffed
  • Their quality is hit and miss
  • Their food is just OK

I want to suggest to the whole industry that this is one of the toughest restaurant markets that we have ever been in. With new forms of competition, new technologies disrupting our businesses, and way to many locations.

I want to suggest that we can’t operate anymore like we did 30 or 50 years ago. We need to analyze every aspect of our businesses and determine if this is still the right way to operate based on the conditions of todays market place. This is just one example.

Waiters for lunch shifts. Lunch shifts suck in most restaurants because you don’t make that much money. In most restaurants with servers all the side work is divided up by station and you have to fill each station with staff just in case you get busy.

Instead of following this the traditional model, maybe a different approach could work.

  • Hire two full time lunch servers that work 8 hour shift and work open to close every day. (Base this off how big your restaurant is)
  • These two full-time servers do all the side work in the restaurant, they set-up lunch and they do the closing side work as well.
  • FYI: look at how your restaurant is set-up, tables, etc. look to streamline this process and create efficiencies.
  • These two full-time servers should get paid a higher hourly wage and should be treated as full time employees. If your company offers benefits they should get them.
  • Then use gig labor for the rush. Hire and train a bunch of people who do gig jobs (Uber, Lyft, Door Dash, Task Rabbit, etc.) and bring them in from 11:30 to end of rush.
  • These gig labor employees, show up and serve customers during the rush and then as soon as it is done and it is time to cut labor, get them off the clock and out the door.

This is a different way of looking at staffing a shift. It could make you very successful because all the team members are winning. The full-time employees are making great money working a full work week and getting a higher wage. The gig employees are coming in for a couple of hours, working a gig, getting some cash in their pockets, living their lives on their terms and they aren’t caught doing all the stuff that people hate about serving tables. They can get in and get out.

I will say to make these kinds of changes in our businesses, which are totally doable, we have to invest in systems and analysis of our own operations. We have to be so systematized that we can plug and play people into different roles within our businesses.

Also, we have to realize that this won’t work on every position but that shouldn’t be a reason why we don’t take advantage of it where it can work.

If you are looking to systematize your restaurants, consider the OpsAnalitica Platform. Our Food Safety and Ops Management Platform can provide you with the real-time structure and learning you need to run better operations on a shift-by-shift and location-by-location basis.

Another Avoidable Food Safety Incident

Red Robin is in the news for a completely avoidable food safety situation. To date there have been 3 confirmed cases of E. Coli at one of their Colorado locations. One adult and two children have been infected. Two of the three have been hospitalized.

A link to the full NRN article is below, but here are some quick takeaways:

  • Inspectors found critical violations including improper employee handwashing, improper cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation surfaces, and cross-contamination between raw meats and other prepared foods
    • Totally avoidable by Implementing a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) with daily Active Managerial Control (AMC)
  • Red Robin closed the restaurant voluntarily the next day conduct a thorough cleaning and provide food safety training for the employees
    • The problem here is that half the people they trained were gone the next week. Training adds absolutely zero value without processes and job aides in place to enforce behavior change ongoing.
  • Red Robin stated ” We maintain rigorous food safety standards and procedures nationwide, which comply with the most recent FDA Food Code.”
    • This tells us one of two things: Either the Food Code is a joke or, the more likely scenario, Red Robin has procedures in place, but there’s no accountability system in place to ensure the procedures are being followed every shift, every day at every location.

This is a dangerous situation for Red Robin. With the way bad news travels these days this won’t only affect this one Colorado location. This will affect performance at every location. Not sure that Red Robin has the brand power to withstand these types issues. They’re a Colorado company, but they’re not Chipotle (I do realize they aren’t Colorado any more).

This incident is just another reason why digital food safety records need to be mandated. It’s too easy to fake your way through the procedures when it’s filled out on paper.

As promised click here to read the full NRN article.

Top 10 Food Service Management Solution Provider

We are extremely honored to be recognized by Food & Beverage Technology Review as a Top 10 Food Service Management Solution Provider of 2019.

The team at OpsAnalitica works tirelessly day in and day out to develop a best in class solution that is easy to use, packed with value, for a price that is much lower than the competition. We believe that technology should, first and foremost, provide efficiencies in the business, but also be less expensive than traditional paper processes.

We continue to pump out intuitive features that help our clients reduce risk around food safety and deliver consistent guest experiences at all their locations, every shift.

Kudos to the whole OpsAnalitica team for providing a solution and customer experience worthy of this recognition.

Thanks to our loyal customers for their trust in our platform and their valuable feedback which 100% drives our development efforts. We wouldn’t be here without their support.

Here’s to more exciting things to come out of OpsAnalitica in 2019!

You can read the Food & Beverage Technology Review article and interview with our very own Tommy Yionoulis here.

You can access the May issue of Food & Beverage Technology Review in digital format here.

If you are interested in learning more about how OpsAnalitica may be able to help you reduce food safety risk and drive consistency in your operations click here to request more information and schedule a demo.

The Number 1 Factor For Reducing Critical Food Safety Violations is…

The number one factor for reducing critical food safety violations is…

Implementing a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) with daily Active Managerial Control (AMC)

The following is from the FDA REPORT ON THE OCCURRENCE OF FOODBORNE ILLNESS RISK FACTORS IN FAST FOOD AND FULL-SERVICE RESTAURANTS, 2013-2014 Prepared by the FDA National Retail Food Team 2018

Here are my conclusions from the study so you don’t have to read the whole thing

  1. The number 1 factor that predicts less food safety violations, in both Fast Food and Full Service restaurants,  is a well developed, documented and executed daily Food Safety Management System (FSMS) that drives Daily Active Managerial Control (AMC). 
    1. FSMS were the strongest predictor of data items being out-of-compliance in both fast food and full-service restaurants: those with well-developed food safety management systems had significantly fewer food safety behaviors/practices out of compliance than did those with less developed food safety management systems.- Page 39
  2. That the presence of Certified Food Protection Manager (CFPM) on staff positively correlates to having a better FSMS but doesn’t replace an FSMS.
    1. However, upon multi-factor regression, the correlations between certified food protection manager and out-of-compliance become non-significant, indicating that food safety management systems and not the presence of a certified food protection manager predict compliance with food safety behaviors/practices. – Page 40
    2. In fast food restaurants with a CFPM who was the person in charge at the time of data collection, the average FSMS score was 2.645, while the average score for fast food restaurants with no CFPM employed was 1.822. In full-service restaurants, scores were 1.842 and 1.348, respectively. This suggests that having a CFPM present at all hours of operation enhances food safety management systems and reduces the number of out-of-compliance food safety behaviors/practices. – Page 40
  3. If you don’t have a CFPM working every shift, then you might as well not have one at all.
    1. In fact, having a CFPM who was not present was almost no different than having no CFPM at all for the out-of-compliance food safety behaviors/practices evaluated in this study. – page 40
  4. The types of Jurisdiction the restaurant resides in and whether the health inspections that you receive are: Scored/Not Scored, Publicly Available/Not Publicly Available, or that Employee Food Safety Training is Required/Not Required didn’t affect the scores of the Fast Food or Full-Service Restaurants. This makes sense as health inspections only happen a couple of times a year. The quote below is for full-service restaurants but they stated similar conclusions for fast food restaurants
    1. Full-service restaurants located in jurisdictions that graded establishments did not have significantly different results (p = 0.0819) compared to full-service restaurants located in jurisdictions that did not grade. Establishments located in jurisdictions where there was a requirement to make inspection results public did not have significantly different compliance (p = 0.6820) than establishments in jurisdictions that did not require reporting. Establishments in jurisdictions that required food handler training did not have significantly different compliance (p = 0.0626) than establishments in jurisdictions that did not require food handler training. – Page 30
  5. Of the foodborne illness risk factors investigated in this study, restaurants had the best control over inadequate cooking. There remains a need to gain better control over improper holding/time and temperature and poor personal hygiene. Page 39
  6. Multi-unit operators had significantly lower instances of out-of-compliance items compared to single unit operators. Page 26 This was true for both Fast Food and Full-Service Restaurants.

In layman’s terms, you have to have food safety procedures for your restaurants daily operations, you have to train your team on how to follow those procedures, most importantly your managers have to complete daily monitoring activities (via checklists, logs, and/or IoT) to ensure that you are identifying and fixing any issues that you find in real-time.

Here is my shameless self-promotion:

  • The OpsAnalitica Platform is the backbone of any good Food Safety Management System. It provides your teams with access to Procedures, Training, and Monitoring functionality in real-time customized to every location and is the foundation of a well developed and documented FSMS. Please click here if you would like to learn more about our platform and how we can help you set up your FSMS. 
  • Time and temperature control was the number one food safety issue identified for both full-service and fast food restaurants. The OpsAnalitica platform integrates with temperature sensors and with our proactive notifications we can alert management to critical food safety violations in real-time so that any problems can be fixed immediately before they affect customers.
  • I have been shouting these conclusions for the last 3 years to everyone in the industry via this blog and our marketing and sales efforts. It feels good to be backed up by this study but the fact that in 68% of Fast Food and 86% of Full-Service Restaurants that there was an observance of improper temperature control means that the status quo system of having paper-based food safety procedures that are largely pencil whipped with no accountability or above store visibility is failing. We as an industry need to take this stuff more seriously.

As food service professionals, we owe it to ourselves, our customers, and our brands to take the conclusions from this report seriously and implement FSMS and daily AMC into our restaurants.

As I mentioned in a blog a couple of weeks ago, we heard from one of the head lobbyists for the NRA that they expect the FDA conversations around mandatory digit record keeping in restaurants to begin in 2019 and would expect to see updates to the food code in 2021. I believe that the conclusions of this report play right into those initiatives for well documented FSMS programs.

Excerpts from the Study

The rest of this blog is going to be summarizing the report and displaying the most interesting charts and graphs from it.  I will try to do my best to make my opinions clear and differentiated from the findings. The above link is my blanket footnote for the information below as you can reference the original text at any point.

Purpose of the Study:

The purpose of each restaurant data collection during the current 10-year study period is to investigate the relationship between food safety management systems (FSMS), certified food protection managers (CFPMs), and the occurrence of risk factors and food safety behaviors/practices commonly associated with foodborne illness in restaurants.

Let’s define FSMS (Food Safety Management System)

FSMS refers to a specific set of actions (e.g., procedures, training, and monitoring) to help achieve active managerial control. While FSMS procedures vary across the retail and food service industry, purposeful implementation of those procedures, training, and monitoring are consistent components of FSMS.

AMC (Active Managerial Control)

To help prevent foodborne illness, the FDA Food Code emphasizes the need for risk- based preventive controls and daily active managerial control (AMC) of the risk factors contributing to foodborne illness in retail and food service facilities. AMC is “the purposeful incorporation of specific actions or procedures by industry management into the operation of their business to attain control over foodborne illness risk factors” (FDA, 2013). A food establishment’s achieving AMC involves the continuous identification and proactive prevention of food safety hazards.

Why are FSMS’s important?

Inadequate FSMS are thought to contribute to the worldwide burden of foodborne disease (Luning et al., 2008). For example, HACCP has been shown to have positive effects on food safety, but the poor implementation of HACCP has been described as a precursor to foodborne outbreaks (Cormier, 2007; Luning et al., 2009; Ropkins and Beck, 2000).

What is a CFPM (Certified Food Protection Manager)

A CFPM is an individual who has shown proficiency in food safety information by passing a test that is part of an accredited program (FDA, 2013a). Research has shown that the presence of a CFPM is associated with improved inspection scores (Hedberg et al., 2007; Cates et al., 2008, Brown et al., 2014). Hedberg et al. (2006) found that the major difference between outbreak and non-outbreak restaurants was the presence of a CFPM.

Table 3 describes how the team rated the risk of different food service establishments, they didn’t study any risk category 1 businesses.

Table 4 talks about what they were looking for in the study.

This next image describes the different scoring criteria for FSMS’s. 

The Results

Study Conclusions

 

Thank you for reading this blog. If you want to learn more about OpsAnalitica, go to OpsAnalitica.com.

 

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